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Jun 30, 2021

Dr Howell’s most recent consulting work was for the US Power Lifting Association in helping them look into the science of trans athletes competing and helping them formulate their position based on science.

Dr. Howell is a former Professor and Ph.D. faculty member in the School of Health and Human Services at Trident University. Dr. Howell holds a Ph.D. in Health Sciences from Trident University, a Medical Degree from BMU School of Medicine, a Master of Science in Sport and Health Science from American Military University, a Bachelor of Science in Sport and Health Science from American Military University, and a Mechanical Engineering degree from Forsyth Technical College.

He is an epidemiologist, exercise physiologist, and mechanical engineer with current research interests in the long-term effects of therapeutic androgen use and endocrine disrupting chemicals exposure. He is a recipient of the prestigious AMU Academic Scholar Award (2016) and has worked on two major NIH and DoD funded studies at Wake Forest University: Strength Training for Arthritis Trial (START) and The Runners and Injury Longitudinal Study (TRAILS). 


Questions discussed:

Do men who have transitioned to women have an advantage in sports over biological females. If so can it be quantified?

Laurel Hubbard transitioned at age 35 now she is 43 in competing in the Olympics as a trans athlete in the superheavyweight women's division.

Prior to that Laurel competed as a man. While being an elite athlete as a man Laurel was never a world-class athlete.

Based on your knowledge does Laurell have a significant advantage over her female competitors.

Does this advantage cover a whole range of sports?

Is the testosterone produced in men and women naturally the same or different?

Based on XX or XY chroma zones chromosomes how is testosterone processed in the body, especially at lower levels?

What are the effects of giving men estrogen? Does it impede the effects of testosterone?

Is there any difference in terms of putting on in maintaining muscle mass? Especially if the testosterone levels are the same.

 Can you talk about routine benefits retained benefits of steroids after they have been no longer after they have no longer used?

Generational levels of testosterone are going down. The labs have just dropped their reference range from mid-1100 to 964.  This is a drop of around 12%. The lower reference ranges have also been dropped to 264. According to Dr Keith Nichols those ranges were in the 1500s  15 years ago.

 He also stated that men in their 20 and 30 are showing up in his clinic with lower baseline levels than those in their 50 and 60s.

 What are you seeing developmentally in boys and young men these days?

What is their prognosis?

Do you see this lower testosterone level as a factor in gender dysphoria?

Many people with gender dysphoria report depression. Do you believe this could be related to low T?

Levine and others report testicular developmental issues in some young men now. Is there a qualitative difference in naturally produced T?


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Howell et al. (in preparation). Hematologic outcomes among inpatients with diagnosed androgen toxicity. American Journal of Public Health.

Howell et al. (in preparation). Risk of liver disease among inpatients with diagnosed androgen toxicity. American Journal of Epidemiology.

Howell et al. (in preparation). Burden of disease among inpatients with diagnosed androgen toxicity. International Journal of Epidemiology.

Howell et al. (in preparation). A comparison of propensity score methods in the analysis of inpatient risk. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

Soares, J. D. P., Howell, S., Teixeira, F. J., Pimentel, G. D. (2020). Dietary amino acids and immunonutrition supplementation in cancer-induced skeletal muscle mass depletion: A mini-review. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 26(9), 970-978.

Santos, H. O., Howell, S., Nichols, K., & Teixeira, F. J. (2020). Reviewing the evidence on vitamin D supplementation in the management of testosterone status and its effects on male reproductive system (testis and prostate): Mechanistically dazzling but clinically disappointing. Clinical Therapeutics, 42(6), e101–e114.

Santos, H. O., Howell, S., Teixeira, F. J. (2019). Coconut oil as a vehicle for lipophilic drug

administration. Journal of Diabetes and Obesity, 6(1), 8-12.

Santos, H. O., Howell, S., Earnest, C.P., Teixeira, F. J. (2019). Coconut oil intake and its effects on cardiometabolic profile – a structured literature review. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 1-30.

Teixeira, F. J., Santos, H. O., Howell, S., Pimentel, G.D. (2019). Whey protein in cancer therapy: A narrative review. Journal of Pharmacological Research, 144, 245-256.

Santos, H. O., Howell, S., Teixeira, F. J. (2019). Beyond tribulus (Tribulus terrestris L.): The effects of phytotherapics on testosterone, sperm and prostate parameters. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1-30.

Teixeira, F. J., Matias, C. N., Monteiro, C. P.,  Howell, S. L., Kones, R. J. (2018). Effects of alpha-hydroxy-isocaproic acid upon body composition in a type I diabetic patient with muscle atrophy – a case study. Yale Journal of Biology.

Kones, R., Howell, S., Rumana, U., & Shaw, M. (2017). n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: Principles, practices, pitfalls, and promises; A Contemporary Review. Medical Principles and Practice.

Howell, S., Kones, R. (2017). "Calories in, calories out" and macronutrient intake: The hope, hype, and science of calories. American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology & Metabolism, 313(5), E608-E612.

Howell, S., Kones, R. (2017). A calorie is still a calorie, according to rigorous new evidence. Journal of Diabetes and Obesity, 4(3), 1-2.

Howell, S. (2013). Biomotor abilities: The importance of developing maximal strength and conversion to power. Sports Speed Digest.

Howell, S. (2013). A modern periodization model. Sports Speed Digest.

Books and Publications

Howell, S. L. (2019). The epidemiology of androgen toxicity: A six-year retrospective cohort study of the risk of primary health outcomes among inpatients with androgen toxicity in the united states (Order No. 27543963). ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (2309521928).

Bompa, T., Howell, S. (2021). The evolution of periodization. Howell, S. (Ed.). Meyer and Meyer. Aachen, Germany.

Bompa, T., Howell, S., Hoffman, J., Blumenstein, B., Orbach I. (2019). Integrated periodization in sports training and athletic development: Combining training methodology, sports psychology, and nutrition to optimize performance. Howell, S. (Ed.). Meyer and Meyer. Aachen, Germany.

Dintiman, G., Ward, B., Oddi, B., Howell, S. (2020). NASE Essentials of Next-Generation Sports Speed Training. Howell, S. (Ed.). Sports Science Network. The National Association of Speed and Explosion.